Category: Technologies
Microprocessor System Applications

Types of Microprocessor System Application

Microprocessors are electronic devices that use binary input to provide results as output. The three types of microprocessor system applications used in industries to run and develop advanced machinery are industrial, commercial, and domestic. They require powerful microprocessors that can handle the large amounts of information fed into them as input. It enables the systems to perform various functions at the same time and at the highest possible level of efficiency.

An example of this system application is the robotic manufacturers used in the automotive industry. The input is too detailed for single-board microcomputers and 8-bit processors and, therefore, it requires microprocessors that can handle multitasking effectively. This process is necessary, as the binary input used in these systems is too long and complex for simple microprocessors to handle efficiently.

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In the commercial sector, microprocessors are used in appliances such as printing and vending machines. They do not perform functions that are as detailed as those in the industrial sector but still require microprocessors that can perform the tasks needed quickly and efficiently. The microprocessors in machines used in the commercial sector need to have the capacity to handle the different functions required successfully.

Microprocessor systems utilized in the domestic sector comprise home alarms and personal computers. Single board and 8- or 16-bit microprocessors are used in the various types of desktops and laptops. However, laptops become increasingly advanced to cope with the changing demands required of them. It may result in the transition to mass-market production of these microprocessors in order to address the specific demands of domestic appliances such as alarm systems and remote controls.

The architecture of Microprocessor-Based Systems

The prevailing number of microprocessor-based systems are created using either the von Neumann or Harvard architecture. The von Neumann is more widely used as it can be applied in most appliances, unlike Harvard architecture, which is used only in the more complex systems. The von Neumann architecture has five parts. These are the control unit, memory, computation unit, input, and output. The computation and control units are generally referred to as the CPU while the input and output are known as the I/O component. The CPU performs arithmetic and logic functions, which involve sending and receiving information to and from the I/O component and the memory. Therefore, the CPU is identified as the brain of the computer as its aim is to make decisions for the computer.

The memory of the von Neumann architecture is in charge of the storage of data and programs that are vital for the computer to function efficiently. The memory may be either volatile or non-volatile. When the memory loses power supply, volatile memory will be also lost. Non-volatile memory refers to data that stays in the memory even when there is no power supply.

The I/O component refers to the devices in the computer systems which convert binary data into information. These devices include the keyboard and hard disks. The CPU, I/O, and memory are connected by buses which are electrical conductors. The microprocessor sends bits and bytes as electronic signals through circuits in a grid and receives signals used as information.

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Decimal, Binary, and Hexadecimal Number Systems

Decimals are the most widespread way to account for a number. Moreover, they are the predominant method used by most humans. They are also known as base 10 and count from the digit 0 onwards. Binary is the manner in which digital circuits represent numbers, which are described in units of 1 and 0 which represent on and off respectively. The hexadecimal form provides the options of representing numbers that are more compact than binary because several binary digits can easily be converted into one hexadecimal one. This transformation is easily done by converting binary digits into sets of four that form one hexadecimal digit. The binary digits form one hexadecimal digit as they increase. For instance, 0000 as binary will be equal to 0 and 0001 will be 1 in hexadecimal form.

Comparison of PIC16 and 8085 Microcontrollers

The PIC16 is a microcontroller that uses the Harvard architecture. It is used in complex systems because of its high operating speed and ability to perform efficiently even under high temperatures because, unlike other microcontrollers, it is free from lead. It uses flash memory, which protects data against loss and can only be erased in blocks. The PIC16F also uses EEPROM, which enables data to be erased electronically. The microcontroller is suitable for complex machinery because it uses software that makes it self-programmable. This software gives it the additional capacity to have programmable code protection and oscillator options. A useful feature can be achieved through a faster oscillator, which makes the processing speed increase. Microcontrollers using the Harvard architecture have different buses for data and memory. Thus, the user has access to the data and memory simultaneously. It makes the microcontroller more efficient as there is no possibility of software performing tasks for data meant for memory and vice versa. The PIC16F has only 35 instructions to learn for one to be able to write software for the microcontroller. It makes it easier to create a program for this system. The PIC16F has a higher speed than the 8085 because it has an internal divide by 4 as compared to a divide by 2 for the 8085 microcontrollers. The flash program memory used enables read access that is free of interruption. Write access is different, as the device using these microcontrollers will usually stop executing instructions until the writing process completes.

The 8085 microprocessor consists of several units. They include the register, arithmetic, and logic unit, program counter, decoder, stack pointer, accumulator, interrupt control, serial input/output control, flags, timing, and control unit, address and data buses, address and address-data buffers. The registers are the temporary memory accessed by the microprocessor when the system performs arithmetic and logical functions. The stack pointer is a section of the random access memory and a 16-bit register. The program counter contains the address of the instruction executed next. The arithmetic and logic unit performs basic functions that involve decimals and words on 8-bit data. This process requires input that indicates how these functions intended to be performed. The accumulator is responsible for providing the input necessary for the arithmetic and logic unit to perform these operations. The accumulator also stores the result of the operation performed by the arithmetic and logic unit.

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